Acid Stimulation

Acid Stimulation

: In stock

: brown-tech

: 9781613994269

: Book


Stimulation of oil, gas, and injection wells with acid is almost as old as the petroleum engineering industry itself. But, the science and technology of acidizing has undergone striking changes in recent years. SPE's latest book, Acid Stimulation, ensures a comprehensive and up-to-the-minute presentation by including an author team of 19 subject matter experts, all at the forefront of the development of acidizing technology. Each chapter, authored separately by individuals from the author team, delivers an authoritative presentation of the key areas of Acid Stimulation, providing an important resource for anyone who designs, analyzes, and/or improves acidizing treatments. 

Acid Stimulation includes 
• A concise review of the tremendous amount of information that has been gathered on the subject since the introduction of the first patents 100 years ago. 
• A summary of the mechanisms that cause formation damage and how to quantify that damage. 
• A summary of the chemistry, reaction kinetics, and methods of measurement of reactive fluids. 
• The latest design information and philosophies for both carbonate and sandstone acidizing.

• Coverage of diversion, acid additives, and acid corrosion control included.  
• Includes guidelines for treatment evaluation and real-time diagnostics. 
• The latest models and measurement techniques for the prediction of acid fracture conductivity, rock dissolution, worm-holing fluid loss, and acid transport.

• Current practices in acid treatment safety, quality control, and protection of the environment.  
• Many of the sections are supplemented with problem sets to reinforce concepts. 


1 Introduction

2 Formation Damage

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Quantifying Formation Damage

2.3 Determination of Flow Efficiency & Skin

2.4 Formation Damage vs. Pseudodamage

2.5 Drilling-Induced Formation Damage

2.6 Formation Damage Caused by Completion & Workover Fluids

2.7 Damage During Perforating & Cementing

2.8 Formation Damage Caused by Fines Migration

2.9 Formation Damage Caused by Swelling Clays

2.10 Formation Damage in Injection Wells

2.11 Formation Damage Caused by Paraffins & Asphaltenes

2.12 Formation Damage Resulting From Emulsion & Sludge Formation

2.13 Formation Damage Resulting From Condensate Banking

2.14 Formation Damage Resulting From Gas Breakout

2.15 Formation Damage Resulting From Water Blocks

2.16 Formation Damage Resulting From Wettability Alteration

2.17 Bacteria Plugging

2.18 Conclusion

3 Acidizing Chemistry

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Introduction to Chemical Reactions

3.3 Chemistry of Rocks & Minerals

3.4 Chemistry of Fluids

3.5 Measurement of Reaction Rates

3.6 Reactions

4 Carbonate Acidizing

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Carbonate Geological Considerations for Acidizing

4.3 Reaction Chemistry

4.4 Wormhole Patterns

4.5 Wormholing Models

4.6 Additives

4.7 Treatment Design

5 Sandstone Acidizing

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Design Issues

5.3 Guidelines

5.4 Experimental Results

5.5 Sandstone Acidizing Models

5.6 Relating Changes in Mineral Concentration to Changes in Porosity & Permeability

5.7 Measuring Critical Parameters for the Lumped Parameter Model-the Damkohler Number & Acid Capacity Number

5.8 Scaling Up the Lumped Parameter Model to Radial Flow

5.9 More-Complex Models

5.10 Estimating the Maximum Injection Rate

5.11 Computer Design Tools

5.12 Real-Time Monitoring

6 Acid Placement & Diversion

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Diversion & Placement Philosophy

6.3 Placement & Diversion

6.4 Diversion

6.5 Decision Tree

6.6 Placement

6.7 Spotting Acid

6.8 High Rate & Maximum Pressure

6.9 Diversion Methods

7 Treatment Evaluation & Real-Time Diagnosis

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Diagnosis Method

7.3 Downhole Pressure Estimate

7.4 Data Required for Field Application

7.5 Field Examples

8 Acid Fracturing

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Acid Transport & Fracture-Face Dissolution

8.3 Acid-Fracture Fluids

8.4 Acid-Fracture Conductivity

8.5 Acid-Fractured-Well Performance

9 Additives for Acidizing Fluids: Their Functions, Interactions, & Limitations

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Corrosion Inhibitors

9.3 Surfactants

9.4 Clay Stabilizers

9.5 Impact of Additives on the Properties of Acids & Their Reactions With the Rock

9.6 Impact of Additives on Key Physical Properties of HCI

9.7 Compatibility Testing

9.8 Concluding Remarks

10 Acid Corrosion & Its Control

10.1 Introduction: The Importance of Corrosion Evaluation

10.2 Simulation of Well Conditions-High-Pressure/High-Temperature (HP/HT) Evaluation

10.3 Fluids & Additives

10.4 Corrosion Inhibitors & Intensifiers

10.5 Acidizing Additives

10.6 Metallurgy

10.7 Evaluation of Corrosion by Electrochemical Techniques

10.8 Special Applications

10.9 Concluding Remarks

11 Economics of Matrix Stimulation

11.1 Introduction

11.2 General Concepts of Acidizing Economics

11.3 Main Economic Criteria

11.4 NPV Characterization of Carbonate Acidizing

11.5 NPV Characterization of Sandstone Acidizing

12 Acidizing Safety & Quality & the Environment

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Current Practices

12.3 Acidizing Additives

12.4 Acidizing Equipment

12.5 Current Practice-Disadvantages

12.6 Continuous Mixing & Process Control

12.7 Advantages of Continuous Mixing/Process Control

12.8 Environmental Aspects of Continuous-Mix Acidizing

12.9 Field Implementation of Continuous Mix for Routine Matrix Acidizing

12.10 Obstacles to Continuous Mixing of Acid

12.11 Conclusions

Appendix 12A-Safety Checklist

Appendix 12B-Quality-Control Checklist

Quality Control During Rig Up of Equipment

Quality Control Before Pumping

Quality Control During Pumping

Quality Control After Pumping/During Flowback

Author Index

Subject Index

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